12th Class English Notes For All Punjab Boards | All 15 Chapters Covered


12thclass English Notes (Short Questions)

The Dying Sun

 Q1.How is it that a star seldom finds another near it?
Ans. Millions of stars are wandering about in the space .Each star is bound to travel in its own orbit .There is distance of millions miles among them. That is why a star seldom finds another near it.
Q2.What happened when a wandering star came near the sun?
Answer. When a wandering star wandering through the space came near the sun it raised huge tides on the surface of sun and formed a big mountain there.
Q3.What happened when wandering star came nearer and nearer?
Answer. The wandering star came nearer and nearer the mountain rose higher and higher.
Q4.What ware planets and how did they came into existence?
Answer. Once a wandering star wandering through the space came near the sun it raised huge tides on the surface of sun and formed a big mountain there. The star came nearer and nearer the mountain rose higher and higher. When the star moved away the, mountain was torn into pieces. These pieces are planets.
Q5.Why is there no life on the Stars?
Answer. The stars are so hot or so cold that it is impossible for life to exist on them.
Q6. Write a short not on the beginning of life on the earth?
Answer. The life started on earth in a simple organism and with the passage of time complex creature come to existence.
Q7.Why is the universe of which our earth is part is so frightened?
Answer. This fact frightens us that the earth is only place where lives can exist. The sense of loneliness is also cause of fear for us.
Q8.What is the conditions necessary for life to exist on other heavenly bodies?
Ans. Life can exists only at which substance exist in liquid state.

Using the Scientific Method

Q1.How has the scientific method against disease?
Answer. Scientific methods inform us about the causes of diseases. We have knowledge diseases if we have knowledge about causes of diseases.
Q2. Write a note on the better sanitary condition available in our big cities today and compare with old cities?
Answer. Today we have better sanitary condition in our big cities. Our streets are paved and well drained whenever one hundred years ago the streets were narrow, unpaved and poorly drained.
Q3. What are sanitary conditions in our village today and how would you improve them?
Answer. In our village streets are narrow, unpaved and poorly drained. We can improve the help of education and scientific method.
Q4. How has the scientific method helped us in the production of food?
Ans. Science has helped us in many ways to increase our production of food. Science has gifted us modern implement which do plough seeding and harvesting very fast. Science has discovered insecticides which save the crop from germs and insects. We can preserve the food by using the method of quick freezing.
Q5. We are less fearful than our ancestors, what were ancestors afraid of?
Answer. Our ancestors were afraid of black cats, broken mirror and number 13. They were also afraid of many types of diseases. We are not afraid of these things because of scientific method.
Q6.  How has the scientific method enabled us to get over the old fears?
Answer. The scientific method has proved the diseases are not caused by sprites but by some natural reasons. Now we are not afraid of diseases like old people.
Q7. Describe the past role of astrology?
Ans. Astrology had an important role in life of people of past. Today very a few people believe in astrology.

Why boy fail in college

Q1.Acording to the author there are some boys who fail because they do not try. Who are they?
Answer. Most of students fail in college because they do not try. They do not work wholeheartedly. Whenever such a student sits at the table to read his attention is diverted to unnecessary things. Some student are very intelligent, they do not work hard as they did in school. The study at college level demand very hard work to pass.
The students who do not try have no interest in practical life. Financial pressure is also a big problem. We can help the college student by giving some aid.
Q2.How does mistaken ambition lead to failure of student?
Answer. Some student are forced study subject against their interest, they do not give their attention to these subjects and fail. They should be free to choose their subject.
Q3. There are some students who have done well at school but fail in college. Why?
Answer. After doing well at the school, some students become over confident. They do not work hard and fail. The study in college is difficult than school. The student should be serious with study at college.
Over confident student are found everywhere in the world. No doubt such boys are found in the college of over country in great number.
Q4. How does financial pressure lead to the failure of the student describe in lesson? Do you have similar cases in your country?
Answer. There are some students which cannot pay their funds of study. They do some job to pay funds, in this way they cannot give their full attention to study and fail. We have many cases similar to it in our country.
Q5. To what extent does the question of health lead to failure at college? How far can the college authorities with their medical officers help students in such cases?
Answer. The student suffering from bad health cannot pay full attention to their studies and fail. Medical facilities should be provided to such student. Medical officers should be co-operative with the teachers to determine the health of the student.
Q6. What place would you accord to sportsman in the college?
Answer. Some students take some more interest in sport than study. They spend most of their time in sports and do not leave an hour for study. This is wrong; they should leave the college and become professional player.
Q7. There are some students who join the college for fun of it. Should they be allowed to study?
Answer. There are some students who join the college for fun. They waste their time and money. They should be thrown out of college.

End of Term

Q1. What was the Daiches attitude towards the week end as a school boy? Why did he long for it?
Answer. The Daiches was very happy at the end of the week during his school life. There were two holidays at every week end. He liked school holidays for his freedom from school work.
Q2.What was his general view of school life?
Answer. In his view school life was hard and full of fear. He felt like a prisoner in the school.
Q3.He liked holidays for their freedom.  Freedom from what.
Answer. He liked holidays for their freedom from hard school work and though school routine.
Q4.How did he spend his summer holidays?
Answer. The summer holidays were not less than a blessing for Daiches. He spent his summer holidays in village.
Q5. What were the things he longed for but could not have?
Answer. He always wished to by a bicycle, sweets and ice-cream but could not.
Q6. What did he do with his pocket money?
Answer. The writer received only few pence as pocket money, but he put it into a money box and saved it.

On Destroying Books

Q1. What sorts of books were presented to soldiers by the British public?
Answer. The books which were presented to soldiers were of two types. Some of them were easy and useful. But some books were useless. These books include very old magazines and guides. It seems that people wanted to get rid of these books.
Q2.Was it interest of soldiers that prompted their action, or was it the wish to get rid of useless books?
Answer. It was not interest of soldier’s but the people wanted to get rid of these books.
Q3. Why should bad books be destroyed?
Answer. The writer says that the destruction of useless books has many advantages. It makes room for new and useful books in shelves. It saves us from search of a good book in our useless books.
Q4. Why is it difficult to destroy books?
Answer. It is difficult to destroy the books because we cannot burn them or through them.
Q5. Why could not the author burn the unwanted books?
Answer. The author could not burn the books because books cannot be burn without separation of pages. The author had no time to separate the pages of
books. In this way he could not burn the books.
Q6. How did he get rid of his unwanted books?
Answer. He stuffed the books into a sack, put the sack over his shoulder, went to the river and threw the books into water.
Q7. Describe the authors midnight venture to throw the books in which his action were likely to arouse?
Answer. The author decided to throw the useless books into the river. He stuffed the books into a sack, put the sack over his shoulder, and went to the river. On the way he passed by a policeman who seemed to be looking at him. He thought that policeman can take him as a thief, but the policeman did not take any notice of him. When he reached on the bank of river he was looking into the water before throwing the sack into it. Suddenly he heard a step near him, he was frightened.  But that person passed by him without looking at him. Then he thought about the voice that can be produce by throwing the sack into the water. At last he put it into water with his courage.
Q8. How did he muster up courage at last to fling them into the river?
Answer. He was afraid that people can take him as a thief or a killer. But he gave himself courage by calling himself coward and threw the sack into the river.
Q9.Did he come to have a feeling for those books once he had got rid of them?
Answer. He was very sad after throwing the books into the water. He thought that the books were useless for him these books might be useful for other. He calls the books “poor innocent”

A Man who was a Hospital

Q1.How did Jerome K Jerome come to suspect that his liver was out of order? What were the diseases he thought he was suffering from fever on reading a book on treatment of diseases?
Answer. Once the writer read an advertisement which was contains symptoms of disease of liver. After reading this advertisement he thought that his liver was out of order.
By his thought he was suffering from fever from typhoid fever, Diphtheria and many other diseases at same time after reading the books of treatment of diseases.
Q2. What was disease he discovered he did not have?
Answer. The only disease that he was not suffering from was “house maid’s knee”.
Q3.Was he pleased to find that he was not having this disease?
Answer. No he was not pleased to find that he did not have this disease. He wanted to have this disease also.
Q4.What was his first reaction?
Answer. He was not pleased that he was not suffering from that disease.
Q5.Why should he be an acquisition to the medical class?
Answer. The author thinks that he has almost all disease. He thought that if medical student have him they need not to walk round the hospital and examine various patients.
Q6. Describe his visit to the medical man?
Answer. After reading the advertisement the writer went to a doctor. He was an old chum of writer. He examined him and no disease in him. The doctor asked him, what matter with you is. He told the doctor briefly that he is victim of all diseases except house maid’s knee.
Q7. He thought he was doing good turn by going to the doctor. Why?
 Answer. The writer thought that he had all diseases in him. He was good patient for practice of doctor. There for he thought he was doing good turn to the doctor by going to him.
Q8. What was the prescription given to him by the doctor?
Answer. The doctor advises him to walk ten miles daily and take one pound bee freak after every six hours. Doctor advised him not to stuff his head with the things he do not understand.
Q9. Describe his visit to chemist?
Answer. The chemist read the prescription and advised the writer to go to a cooperative store to buy these items.
Q10. What is the significance of the doctor’s advice do not stuff your head with things you do not understand?
Answer. In the simple words its means do not think about such things which you cannot understand.

My Financial Career

Q1. What light to following expressions throw on Leacock’s state of mind when he enters in the bank, look timidly round shambled in?
Answer. Whenever the writer goes into bank he gets confused. He fears of clerks, wickets and piles of notes in the bank. The arrangement of bank makes him nervous.
Q2. Why did the manager come to think that Leacock had an awful secret to reveal?
Answer. The manager of bank thought that the Leacock had an awful secret to reveal because he wanted to meet him alone.
Q3.What was the attitude of manager after meeting?
Answer. The manager behaved unkindly when he came to know that the writer wanted to deposit fifty six dollars only.
Q4. What other blunder did Leacock commit after leaving the manager’s office?
Answer. The writer was very confused in bank. He entered in a cabin after leaving the manager’s office. In confusion he wrote fifty six dollars instead of six dollars to withdraw.
Q5. After this misadventure in the bank where did Leacock keep his money?
Answer. He kept his money in cash in his trouser’s pocket and his saving in a sock.

Chinas way to progress

Q1. Why has the world changed its attitude towards China?
Answer. The world has changed its attitude towards the china because it contain one fourth of mankind and has fast growing economy.
Q2. Describe Chinese agricultural system?
Answer. China has its own way of agriculture. It has introduced the system of communes. Every commune has subdivisions and subdivisions are divided into production bridges. The villagers do not desire to move to cities. All facilities are available for them in villages.
Q3. How does china rely on its own resources?
Answer. The chine’s follow the Mao’s famous maxim “Rely on your own resources”. So the chins use machines and other things manufactured in china.
Q4. Describe a day in the life of chine’s student?
Answer. A chine’s student gets up at 6:00am. Takes breakfast and goes to school. He comes back for lunch at 1:30pm. He goes to home from school at 3:00pm. Then he takes rest reading newspaper. He plays in evening.
Q5. Write a note on chine’s woman?
Answer. Chine’s women have eight hours working daily, and have free medical care. There are schools for free education of their babies. The chine’s women enjoy 56 say’s rest on full salary before a child birth.
Q6. What is the social security benefits provided to chine’s workers?
Answer.  Social security means to provide all possible facilities of life to workers. The chine’s workers enjoy free medical treatment and free housing facilities.
Q7. It is the people and not things that are decisive discuss.
Answer. Mao says it is the people and not things that are decisive. It means that men are superior to all other things.
Q8. The heart of meter is the needed to root out selfishness disease?
Answer. The root of matter is selfishness. In way of progress one should root out selfishness first. Cooperation is the key to success.

Hunger and population Explosion

Q1. What does hunger mean on a large scale or viewed by the author?
Answer. According to author hunger on a large scale means never having enough to eat. On a large scale hunger means famine.
Q2. How does famine occur?
Answer. Famine may be caused by over population diseases of crops, lack of rain or lack of proper planning in society.
Q3.What is main reason of population increase today?
Answer. The main reason of population increase is that the birth rate has become higher than death rate.
Q4. What is meant by birth rate and death rate and how so they affect the population of a country?
Answer. By birth rate mean the number of birth per 1000 population in a year and by the death rate we mean number of death per 1000 population in a year. With the increase of birth rate and decrease of death rate population is increasing.
Q5. What have public health measures to do with increase of population in country?
Answer. Public health department have made sanitary condition better in cities and have controlled disease.
Q6. Why is birth rate high in under developed countries?
Answer. Under developed countries are suffering from lack of education and other problems. Naturally, people incline towards their wives and it result in increase of birth rate.
Q7. Why the birth rate is not so high in the more advanced countries?
Answer. The people in more advanced countries are aware of dangers of over population. Through the proper planning they have controlled birth rate and their population.

The jewel of the world 

Q1. Give an account of early life of Abdu-Al-Rehman 1, his dramatic escape and his adventures in Africa?
Answer. When Abbasid’s capture Damascus in 750, they started to kill the Umayyad. Abdu-Al-Rehman 1and his younger brother were hiding themselves in a Badin camp on the left bank of Euphrates river. One day suddenly enemy’s horse men reached over him. With his younger brother he jumped into the river. He reached to the bank of river but his brother was killed. He went to the south east ward. He met with the Syrian troops who came from Damascus and were stationed in the south of Spain. He attacked Spain and after some year captured all the Spain.
Q2. How did Abdu-Al-Rehman deal with governor appointed by Abbasid caliph in to contest his rule?
Answer. Abdu-Al-Rehman killed the governor; cut off his head preserved it in salt, wrapped in a black flag and sent it to the caliph.
Q3. What did Abbasid caliph say on receiving the head of governor?
Answer. He become terrified and thanked the God that he had placed a sea between us and such a foe.
Q4. What did Abdu-Al-Rehman do to made himself strong and beautify his capital?
Answer. He made a disciplined and trained army of 40000 Berbers. He made his capital beautify by giving them pure water supply. There were seven hundred masques and the three hundred public baths in Carbova.

First year at harrow

 Q1. The writer says that the examiners ask question which student cannot answer. Is this complaint just?
Answer.  The complaint is not just, because the writer wants to be asked only questions which he knows. But the examiners have to set one question paper for all students according to their syllabus.
Q2. What sorts of question are asked by your examiners?
Answer. The questions asked in examination are of two types. In subjective type students have to write an essay a story or an application while in objective type a student has to fill in the blanks with suitable words.
Q3. Why did not Churchill do well in the examination?
Answer. The Churchill did not well in the examination because he liked history, poetry and essay writing. But most of question in examination were asked about Latin and mathematics.
Q4. How did he do hi Latin paper?
Answer. He wrote his name and the number of question. Then he put brackets around it as (1). He could not write more.
Q5. Churchill was taught English at harrow and not Latin and Greek was it a gain or loss?
Answer. To learn English was not a loss for him because it helped him a lot in his practical life.
Q6. What good did his three year stay at harrow do him?
Answer. He practiced English three times more than an ordinary student therefore he become expert in English.
Q7. In after years how did the knowledge English stand him in good stead?
 Answer. The English helped him very much to earn his living. He got a good job easily.

Hitch hiking across the Sahara

  Q1. Give an idea of size of Sahara. How does it compare with England?
Answer. The full Sahara area is stretching almost the complete width of North Africa. It is many times the size of English.
Q2. What had Christopher foster mother to do with his desire to see distance?
Answer. The Christopher was very naughty in his childhood. His foster mother used to threaten him to send him to Timbuktu. But this thing made him keen to see to see distance place.
Q3. How did he manage to get a seat in the weapons carrier?
Answer.  He requested the officer showing him the permission from the war ministry. Luckily the officer did not turn over the page where the stamp of cancelling of permission was.
Q4. What was the most noticeable feature of the desert city named Gardenia?
Answer. The most noticeable feature of Gardenia was flies. Food and all other things were covered with flies.
Q5. How did they manage to drive the heavy truck in the trackless desert with its soft sand?
Answer. The sand was very soft. The truck could not run on the sand. They had some strips of steel mesh in the truck. They placed them together before the truck and made a runway for the truck.
Q6. What did the driver of truck tell Christopher about three Englishmen who had attempted to cross the desert?
Answer. The driver of truck told the Christopher about the three Englishmen who tried to cross the desert in a car with only one day water supply. Their bodies were found dried like leaves after three days.
Q7. Compare the El Golea with in Salah?
Answer. El Golea was a beautiful city. The water was available there. There was a pool of water; Christopher spent hours bathing in the pool during his stay in El Golea. Whenever there is sand and sand everywhere in In-Salah. A part of town had swallowed by sand.
Q8. What do you know about Professor Claude Balanguernon? How did he save the hero’s life towards the end of Hitch-Hick?
 Answer. Professor was a remarkable Frenchman who had devotes himself to help the Tuareg people. Christopher was waiting for professor in-Abangarit without food and water. The professor sent a rescue party to find the Christopher. So his life was saved by professor.
Q9. Why did they kill a camel? What sorts of water did they get?
Answer. Christopher and party had no water during their journey through the land of thirst and death. So they killed the camel and got an unappetizing greenish fluid.
Q10. Describe the Christopher’s stay at In-Abbangarit. How did Christopher manage to get water there?
Answer. Christopher was waiting for professor in In-Abbangarit. He had no water; the nearest well was 46 meters deep. He used a tea pot and a wire from the tape recorder to fetch water from it.

Sir Alexander Fleming

 Q1. What are antiseptic and what is antiseptic method?
Answer. Some chemical are used to destroy germs. These are called antiseptics. The method in which chemicals are used to destroy the germs is called antiseptic method.
Q2. What was the chief defect of antiseptic method?
Answer. It was proved that antiseptic method is more harmful to leucocytes than the germs.
Q3. What part is played by the white cells in the blood of human body?
Answer. White cells are natural defense against diseases. Whenever the germs enter in the body the white cells immediately attack them.
Q4. Give an account of the early life of Fleming?
Answer. The Fleming’s father was died when he was 7years old. After completing his education at Darval School he sent to Kilmarnock academy. At fourteen he joined regent street polytechnic. At the age of twenty he joined Mary’s medical school.
Q5. Describe how Fleming discovered Penicillin?
Answer. In his laboratory a mould spore dropped on cultural plate. At once germs began to disappear around it. He made a pure culture plate of mould and determines its effects on germs. It was natural penicillin.
Q6. In what respect is penicillin better than the chemical antiseptic?
Answer. The chemical antiseptics more harmful to leucocytes but penicillin do not effect on leucocytes.
Q7. What do you know about oxford team?
Answer. The oxford team consist the trained chemists and doctors. They consolidated penicillin for practical use.
Q8. How did they make penicillin more effective?
Answer. They made the penicillin more effective by adopting new methods of manufacturing.
Q9. Was Fleming proud of his discovery?
Answer. He was not proud of his discovery. He said penicillin was already present in the world. He had only discovered it.
Q10. Why could not penicillin have been discovered in the research laboratories of America?
Answer. Because American laboratories were sterilized. Mould spore could not come in through the window in this way the penicillin could not be discovered in research laboratories of America.
Q11. Fleming’s achievement paved the way for other discoveries in medical field. What are they?
Answer. The Fleming’s achievement helped the other scientist to discover new antibiotics. They worked on penicillin and discovered more antibiotics like streptomycin.

Lois Pasteur

Q1. Describe the early life of Pasture?
Answer. The great scientist Pasture was born at dole in Jura district of France in 1822. When he was two years old his family moved Dole to Arrobas and here he was sent to school at communal college. At first he showed no interest in books but after sometimes he began to work wholeheartedly. He graduated in science and arts from Besancon College.
Q2. Give some instances of pasture’s patriotism?
Answer. During the war between Germany and France he wanted to become a national guard he was refused because he was parlays. He also returned the degree of doctor to the German University.
Q3. What do mean by spontaneous generation?
Answer. Spontaneous generation means reproduction of germs automatically without their parents.
Q4.How did pasture proved that spontaneous generation was not a fact?
Answer. He proved that if a substance is heated to destroy all life and the air contact with it is filtered the germs do not develop.
Q5. Describe the importance and popularity of silkworm industry in France. What help did pasture render in curing the silkworm diseases in his country?
Answer. Silkworm was backbone of French economy. It was hit by an unknown disease. Pasture saved the farmers by suggesting to avoiding overcrowding overheating and unhealthy conditions.
Q6. How did pasture discover the treatment for the cattle disease; Anthrax?
Answer. He discovered that if weakened germs of the disease are injected into an animal’s blood, it would protect the animal from taking deadly form.
Q7. How did pasture discover the method of making vaccine?
Answer.  The pasture injected weakened germs of a disease into an animal’s blood. It protects this animal from this disease. This was the method of preparing vaccine.
Q8. Give an account of pastures treatment of Hydrophobia and how he cured the first patient suffering from it?
Answer. Hydrophobia or Rabies is a horrible disease caused by the bit of a mad dog. Pasture took the nervous tissue of an animal which had died of hydrophobia. He weakened these germs and introduced it in to dogs. It rendered them immune to hydrophobia. Later it was applied to a boy, Joseph in 1885.

Mustafa Kamal

 Q1. What was the attitude of Turkish government towards the allies after World War 1?
Answer. The attitude of Turkish Government was slavish towards the allies. The allies supervised the police and ports and they were practical rulers of Turkey.
Q2.Why was Mustafa Kamal was sent to Anatolia?
Answer. When the Riyazim karabekar began to oppose the allies forces. Mustafa kamal was sent to eastern Anatolia to deal with situation.
Q3. What was the reaction of Turkish patriots to intention of allies to partition the Ottoman Empire?
Answer. All the Turkish patriots and Turkish friend of allies flew to rag. They decided to struggle for independence of their mother land.
Q4. Write a note on Mustafa Kamal’s activities in Anatolia?
Answer. He was sent to put down the revolt but he himself was a patriot. He persuaded the people in Anatolia to join the independence movement. They looted the ammunition from allies and fought against Greeks.
Q5.Why did Mehmet orde Mustafa kamal to return back?
Answer. Mehmet thought that the cooperation with the allies was good for turkey. Mustafa kamal was ordered to return back because he was supporting the revolt.
Q6. What was Mustafa Kamal’s reply?
Answer. He replied that he would stay in Anatolia until the nation had won its independence.
Q7. How did Mehmet try to regain Anatolia for himself?
Answer. Sultan adopted a diplomatic policy and asked the nation to form a government in the Captital. All patriots were convinced but kamal refused because he was aware of aim of sultan.
Q8. Why did his plane failed?
Answer. Mustatafa kamal made an army to fight against the enemies with the help of villagers. He created such a situation that allies had to dissolve the national assembly.
Q9.  What were the terms offered to turkey by the Allies?
Answer. According to these terms eastern Anatolia was to be added to the state of Armenia. Around Izmir was to be a larg Greek district. Celclilia was to be handed over to the France. Capital was to be ruled over by allies. Turkish patriots refused to accept the terms.
Q10. Give an account of the Greek attack and its defeat?
 Answer. The battle between Greek and patriots took place in a hilly area above the Sakarya River. The trucks fought bravely and defeated the Greeks.
Q11. Give an account of departure of Mehmet from Istambol?
Answer. Mehmet requested the British Government to to give him protection. An ambulance on 17thof September, 1922, took him to Britain.
Q12. Describe Mustafa kamal’s reforms?                                                      Answer. After coming into power he took great interest in national building. He educated the people on a large scale. He raised status the status of women. Under his leadership Turkey make progress by leaps and bounds.

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